Germanium Sesquioxide Analytical Tests
Contamination of germanium sesquioxide with dangerous levels of inorganic salts occurs only as a result of extreme carelessness or a wanton act. Carefully designed process controls virtually eliminate the likelihood of such contamination. Our analytical testing offers additional protection and is capable of detecting levels of contamination far below anything considered dangerous. Common sense dictates that meticulous quality control is the key to insuring the safety of germanium sesquioxide or any nutritional product. The following are analytical tests that can be quickly and easily conducted:
- Loss on Drying
The level of volatiles present is essential to determining the true outcome of any quantitative test based on the initial weight of a tested sample.
An un-buffered saturated solution of germanium sesquioxide has a pH between 2.2 and 2.6. Based on the known structure, the amount of NaOH needed to neutralize the product is a simple calculation. Dangerous levels of inorganic forms of Germanium will produce a low titration. A mixture of Vitamin C and germanium dioxide in correct proportions to pass titration will invariably fail the elemental analysis, HPLC, X ray fluorescence, X ray defraction, IR and solubility.
Keep in mind that there are derivatives of germanium sesquioxide in the form of salts. These are not harmful but will also give a low titration.
The solubility of a known amount of germanium sesquioxide is conducted in a known amount of boiling distilled water. GeO2 is not readily soluble in boiling water and is much more soluble in acid. Dangerous levels of GeO2 will produce a cloudy solution or insoluble material in the bottom of a flask.Germanium lactate citrate is a highly soluble combination of germanium dioxide, lactic and citric acid. The solubility test will not flag the presence of germanium dioxide in this instance but other analytical tests will readily detect it.
- Elemental Analysis
In its pure form, germanium sesquioxide contains 42.7% elemental Germanium. Dangerous levels of inorganic forms of germanium will register higher than 43.1% by atomic absorption. This will usually be supported by a low titration and likely by a failed solubility.
- X-Ray Fluorescence
This sophisticated method for detecting germanium content is both easy and quantifiable. This method can be used to verify the results of elemental analysis, though the margin of error is somewhat higher.
- X-Ray Diffraction
This is a very sensitive method for detecting the presence of inorganic germanium contaminates. With the ability to detect less than 10 ppm, this method is more than adequate for detecting harmful levels of inorganic germanium.
- IR Spectral Analysis
While gross contamination with inorganic forms of Germanium will be evident with this method, IR analysis is generally used to quickly determine whether pure inorganic forms of Germanium are being mistaken for organic forms. Different polymorphs (crystal structures) of germanium sesquioxide will give slightly different IR spectra. This should be taken into consideration when being used to identify germanium sesquioxide.
- 13 C-NMR
This method will reveal the presence of a germanium/carbon bond, an essential element in all organic forms of germanium. The presence of germanium and the lack of a germanium/carbon bond is a dead giveaway of a toxic inorganic form.
This method can be used to elucidate the correct structure of Germanium Sesquioxide. [(GeCH2CH2COOH)2O3]n
- Kjedahl Total Nitrogen
Nitrogen content does not reveal anything about inorganic germanium contamination. It is, however, indicative of an inferior manufacturing process, utilizing acrylonitrile, which can lead to other undesirable contaminants. Total nitrogen has been used in the past to distinguish Designed Nutritional's germanium sesquioxide from inferior sources.
Properly designed HPLC analysis will positively determine whether germanium sesquioxide is pure. The identity of trace impurities can be determined through additional testing methods.
- Heavy Metals
Establishes whether contamination exists by way of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury.
Establishes whether any microbiological contamination exists by way of total plate count, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, yeast, and mold.